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Unknown History Podcast by Giles Milton

Unknown History Podcast

by Giles Milton

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History doesn’t have to be dry dates and famous figures memorized in textbooks. Unknown History shares the surprising, quirky, and remarkable stories of our past that somehow slipped through the cracks of your high school history class. Historian and renowned author Giles Milton brings a defibrillator to history, telling stories you either never heard of or thought you knew but now see in a totally new light. To download podcast episodes not shown here, visit www.QuickandDirtyTips.com.


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  • The Men Who Deprived Hitler of the Atomic Bomb
    Thu, Mar 16, 2017


    In last week’s episode, we heard about how a small band of men were trained to undertake the most audacious sabotage mission of the Second World War. These were the ten men – led by a young adventurer named Joachim Ronneberg - who were tasked with depriving Hitler of an atomic bomb.

    How? Well, there was only one way – and that was to destroy the Norsk Hydro heavy water factory in Norway, the only place capable of providing the Nazis with the heavy water necessary for making an atomic bomb.

    But this was far from easy. Norsk Hydro was constructed like a medieval fortress, perched atop a 700-foot shaft of vertical rock. Three of its sides were sheer, plunging deep into one of the most spectacular gorges in Norway: ‘So deep,’ wrote one, ‘that the sun never reached the depths of it.’

    There was but one point of access: a narrow suspension bridge that was under twenty-four-hour armed guard. It was completely inaccessible to a group of saboteurs.

    Hear more in the full episode of Unknown History in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook.

    ----

    This post was roughly excerpted from Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare by Giles Milton. You can pick up a copy today on AmazonIndieBoundBarnes & Noble, and Booksamillion

  • George Rheam and Industrial Sabotage
    Thu, Mar 09, 2017


    Colin Gubbins was always looking out for brilliant mavericks who might be able to help him fight his dirty war against Hitler. Among the early recruits were Cecil Clarke, a trailer engineer with a hidden expertise in high explosive and Millis Jefferis, who displayed an alarming interest in blowing up bridges. Both have been featured in previous episodes of Unknown History. But one of the most chilling individuals to be hired by Gubbins was George Rheam.

    Rheam had first come to Gubbins’s attention in 1943, when he learned of a brilliantly gifted maverick living in a suburban house in north London. Rheam was said to be the country’s leading expert in steam turbines, power stations and generators: he was immediately summoned to Gubbins’s Baker Street headquarters for an interview.

    Those who met George Rheam rarely forgot the experience, for he was a chilling individual, an unsmiling genius with thatch-coloured hair and penetrating steel eyes that betrayed no hint of his inner thoughts.

    He spoke sparingly, precisely, as if adjectives and adverbs were a frivolous waste of time. Gubbins was quick to realize that Rheam had a very clear idea of how to destroy the Nazis. His greatest desire was to turn Occupied Europe into an industrial junkyard and he insisted that ‘sabotage, if properly planned and carried out, can reduce a country’s war-potential to the point where it becomes impossible to wage war.’

    Rheam also knew more than most people about industrial engineering. He had worked for nearly a decade at an industrial plant, where he was rather better at interacting with steam turbines than with his colleagues. In 1930 he and Mrs Rheam moved south – to London - so that he could take up a new job at a generating station. Here, he spent his working day studying the parts of electricity generators. He was soon the country’s leading expert.

    Hear more in the full episode of Unknown History in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook.

    ----Churchill

    This post was roughly excerpted from Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare by Giles Milton. You can pick up a copy today on AmazonIndieBoundBarnes & Noble, and Booksamillion

  • Churchill's Extraordinary Killing School
    Thu, Mar 02, 2017


    Of all the people who worked for Winston Churchill’s Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare, Eric Sykes and William Fairbairn were by far the most extraordinary.

    They first came to the attentions of the War Office in the summer of 1940 when they pitched up unannounced in Whitehall, having just arrived from the Far East. Both were close to retirement age and had come to offer their services in the fight against Nazi Germany. At first glance they were an unlikely couple of recruits, best suited, perhaps, to patrol duty in the Home Guard. Dressed in khaki, and striding suburbia with pitchfork and spade, they would have at least been made to feel they were playing a part in the war against Hitler.

    But they arrived in London with such an incredible story (and curriculum vitae to match) that they could not be easily ignored. The first of the men, Eric Sykes, was known to his friends as Bill, a reference to Dickens’s famously shady character. He was stocky, with pebble-glass spectacles and a dimpled smile: he looked as if he couldn’t hurt a fly. One acquaintance said he had the ‘manner and appearance of an elderly, amiable clergyman’. Others were ‘lulled by his soft tones and charmed by his benevolent smile’.  But Sykes was neither benevolent nor a clergyman. He was an expert in silent killing – chilling, ruthless and clinical – and a man whose every sentence was said to end in the words, ‘and then kick him in the testicles.'

    His previous employment had been in Shanghai, where he had worked as the representative of two American firearms companies, Colt and Remington. He was a crack shot, arguably the finest in the world, and his speciality was shooting from the hip. One who watched him in action was astonished to see him spin round, gun in hand, ‘with his back facing the target and hit the bull’s eye from between his legs.'

    Hear more in the full episode of Unknown History in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook.

    ----

    This post was roughly excerpted from Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare by Giles Milton. You can pick up a copy today on AmazonIndieBoundBarnes & Noble, and Booksamillion

  • Millis Jefferis: Expert of Destruction
    Thu, Feb 23, 2017


    The first thing people noticed about Millis Jefferis was his extraordinary physique. He looked like a gorilla, with ‘a leathery looking face, a barrel-like torso and arms that reached nearly to the floor’.

    The second thing they noticed – if and when they got to speak with him – was that he had a brain like lightening. Jefferis was a maestro of applied mathematics and a genius at structural engineering. He had built the most extraordinary bridges, viaducts and roads.

    But he one other talent that was known to only a handful of people. He was the country’s greatest expert in destruction. Millis Jefferis knew better than anyone else how to blow up a bridge, a viaduct or a power station. And in time of war, that made him very valuable indeed. 

    Jefferis joined the top secret guerrilla unit, MIR (Military Intelligence Research) in the spring of 1939; he was to be MIR’s expert on explosives. When the office secretary, Joan Bright, was first introduced to him, she was as startled as everyone else by his strange looks and abrupt manner.

    His jacket was crumpled and his trousers creased: the overall impression was of someone with a complete disdain for military etiquette. His brother-in-law thought he looked ‘more like a race-course bookie’ than a soldier.  Joan wasn’t so sure. She took one look at his ruddy cheeks and declared that ‘he could never have belonged to any other branch of the army but the Royal Engineers."

    To find out what happened next, listen to the full episode of our podcast, Unknown History, in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook

    ----

    This post was roughly excerpted from Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare by Giles Milton. You can pick up a copy today on AmazonIndieBoundBarnes & Noble, and Booksamillion

  • Collin Gubbins and the Birth of Guerrilla Warfare
    Thu, Feb 16, 2017


    Collin Gubbins and the Birth of Guerrilla Warfare

    Colin Gubbins was a most unlikely figure to lead a guerrilla army. He was a dapper little man who wore smooth suede gloves and walked with a silver-topped cane. He was, said one, ‘dark and short, his fingers square, his clothes immaculate’, and he had the looks to match the attire. ‘Slight and superbly built, with beetling eyebrows, penetrating eyes and a gravelly voice’. But some of his acquaintances were troubled by the sharp glint in his eyes, which seemed to hint at an icy ruthlessness.

    Gubbins was 43 years of age in 1939: had fought in the trenches of the First World War and had seen enough horrors to put most men off war for the rest of their lives. Not Gubbins. He was addicted… he had war in his blood and he wanted more. After a brief tour of duty in Murmansk, having a crack at Lenin’s Bolsheviks, he offered his services in Ireland.

    It was to change his life forever. He found himself engaged in running street battles with Michael Collins and his band of Sinn Fein revolutionaries, a bitter, nasty and unpredictable conflict. Gubbins complained to his superiors at ‘being shot at from behind hedges by men in trilbys and mackintoshes and not being allowed to shoot back’. But those men in trilbys taught him a lesson he would never forget: irregular soldiers, armed with nothing but homespun weaponry, could wreak havoc on a regular army.

    In the spring of 1939, he was asked to join a top secret outfit whose purpose was to plan a dirty, mischievous and thoroughly ungentlemanly war against Hitler’s Nazis. It had been given the name MIR – Military Intelligence, Research. The research was into how to fight an effective guerrilla war. Gubbins’s priority was to prepare an instruction manual in such warfare, setting out in terse prose how best to kill, incapacitate or maim the maximum number of people.

    To find out what happened next, listen to the full episode of our podcast, Unknown History, in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook

    ----Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare

    This post was roughly excerpted from Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare by Giles Milton. You can pick up a copy today on AmazonIndieBoundBarnes & Noble, and Booksamillion

  • Cecil Clarke: Churchill's Unlikely Weapons Mastermind
    Thu, Feb 09, 2017


    Churchill's Unlikely Weapons Mastermind

    Cecil Clarke’s caravan was a marvel to behold. More than fourteen feet in height, it stood taller than a London double-decker bus and its low-slung chassis was a revolutionary piece of engineering. Like all of Clarke’s caravans, it came equipped with a unique suspension system that promised passengers a smoother ride than any other caravan on the road. It was a promise in which Clarke took considerable pride, for he was the designer, the engineer, the architect and the mechanic. 

    Clarke was portly and bespectacled, a lumbering gentle-giant with heavy bones and a mechanic’s hands. Half boffin, half buffoon, he was viewed by his neighbours with affection tinged with humour. Those neighbours would smile knowingly to one another as they watched him buffing the paintwork of his beloved vehicles, unaware that he had the hands of a magician and the brains of a genius.

    Clarke’s extraordinary caravans had come to the notice of an engineer- inventor named Stuart Macrae, who was working on a project of the greatest possible secrecy. Macrae had been approached by a clandestine organisation known as MIR – Military Intelligence Research – and asked to develop a new type of magnetic mine – one that could be used for guerrilla attacks on Hitler’s ever-growing navy. The date was spring 1939, and Hitler had just ordered his infamous Plan Z – the immediate and massive strengthening of the German navy. Rather than competing in a naval arms race it could not afford, Britain decided that it would be cheaper to sink Hitler’s ships than build new ones of their own.

    Stuart Macrae agreed to take on the project of developing the deadly new mine, but he soon became unstuck. Unable to work out how to design such a dirty bomb, he turned to his old friend Cecil Clarke, whose brain – he knew - was used to finding out of the box solutions to seemingly intractable problems.

    To find out what happened next, listen to the full episode of our podcast, Unknown History, in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook.

    ---
    Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare
    This post was roughly excerpted from Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare by Giles Milton. You can pick up a copy today on Amazon, IndieBoundBarnes & Noble, and Booksamillion

     

  • What Happened When One Lawyer Went Up Against Hitler?
    Thu, Feb 02, 2017


    Taking Hitler to Court

    He was small, plump-cheeked and going bald, a skilful lawyer who had long defended the underdogs of society. Now, in May 1931, Hans Litten was preparing to take on the most formidable foe in his entire career.

    In the dock before him stood Adolf Hitler,  leader of the Nazi Party, who was accused of waging a systematic and brutal war against the enemies of Nazism. Hans Litten, the chief prosecutor, was determined to prove Hitler guilty. The Eden Dance Palace trial was to prove one of the most dramatic legal showdowns in history. In the run-up to the case, Litten—who was born of Jewish parents—had grown increasingly appalled by the lawlessness of Hitler  and his supporters.

    Just a few months earlier, an SA Rollkommando (a small paramilitary unit) had launched a savage attack on a nightclub frequented  by communists. Three people were killed and twenty badly injured in a violent brawl that had clearly been planned in advance. The ensuing  police  investigation  was bungled  from  the outset and made little headway. The incompetence  of the police so infuriated Hans Litten  that he took it upon himself to investigate the events of that night in November. He centred his case on four of the injured, convinced that  he would be able to secure a conviction for manslaughter against their attackers. If found guilty, the perpetrators of the violence could expect to spend years behind bars.

    But Litten  hoped  to achieve far more than  a prison sentence for the men. He wanted to demonstrate  that the Nazis were deliberately and  systematically using terror tactics to destroy the Weimar Republic. If he could prove this, the days of the Nazi Party were certain to be numbered.

    To find out what happened next, listen to the full episode of our podcast, Unknown History, in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook.

    ---

    This post is roughly excerpted from When Churchill Slaughtered Sheep and Stalin Robbed a Bank. You can preorder a copy of the book, due out in November 2016, on AmazonBarnes & NobleIndieboundBooks-a-Million, and Apple

    Image courtesy of Shutterstock.

     

  • Discovering Guy Burgess: Cambridge's Most Infamous Spy
    Fri, Jan 27, 2017


    By CelticVT (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

    Image courtesy of Celtic VT/Wikipedia

    UH: Today we are joined by author Andrew Lownie, whose book Stalin's Englishman is out now at book retailers everywhere. He first became interested in the Cambridge Spy Ring when, as President of the Cambridge Union Society in 1984, he arranged an international seminar on the subject. After graduating from Cambridge University, he went on to take a postgraduate degree in history at Edinburgh University. He is now a successful literary agent, and has written or edited several books. Welcome, Andrew.

    AL: Hello! 

    UH: Who exactly was Guy Burgess, and how did he become one of the Cambridge spies?

    AL: Guy Burgess was born in 1911, and he was one of what we call the Cambridge Five, a ring of spies that provided British and American secrets to the Soviets before and during the Cold War. He was a very intelligent, wealthy, and well-educated young man who was living in Cambridge and studying at Trinity College when he got involved with Communist politics, and became friends with a man called Kim Philby. Through Philby he was recruited by the Russians to become a Russian spy in 1935. 

    UH: How was Guy eventually suspected of espionage and what did he do then?

    AL: I think the irony of the whole situation is that Burgess was never suspected of espionage; it was only him fleeing with another member of the Cambridge Give, Donald Maclean, in 1951 that made people realize he was part of the ring. If he hadn’t escorted Maclean, he wouldn’t have been discovered, as he hadn’t actually been identified in the Verona Codes that identified Maclean; he might well have just been disciplined, left the Foreign Office, and retired to the British countryside, or gone and lived abroad, and we probably never would’ve hear of him. 

    UH: How does his story represent both other spies during the Cold War, and in what way is his story more compelling or more unique than other spies?

    AL: I think he’s in some ways the most tragic comic of the spies. He was very lonely when he was stationed in Moscow; he found nothing to do there except to drink, he never really assimilated, he never learnt Russian, and he didn’t really have many friends apart from some visitors. The other members of the Cambridge Five were better; Donald Macleans family joined him in Moscow and he learnt Russian, and Kim Philby came later than Burgess so he wasn’t there as long. But of course he was like all the others; they were all recruited at the same time, by the same people, all within the space of a year or so in the mid-1930’s. They all knew each other, and in fact Maclean and Burgess were lovers for a time, and then Burgess and Blunt were lovers, sharing a flat together during the war. They were all close friends and very interconnected. I think that's why people are so fascinated by them, because not only were they very privileged, and it seems weird that they should turn on their backgrounds like this, but also that they all knew each other, and indeed a wider group of people, really anyone who was anyone in mid-20th century Britain knew some of the Cambridge spies. 

    UH: What are the challenges of writing about a secret world?

    AL: Writing intelligence history is very difficult, because you rely on documents and you rely on interviews, and neither of them is very easy to obtain. You can’t talk to intelligence officials because they aren’t allowed to talk to you, and in addition these people are taught to lie, so they’re very unlikely to give you the truth even if you do get them to talk. The Russians I interviewed at the time were giving disinformation and just playing with me, so you have to be able to corroborate that. Clearly in a case like this that’s 70 years old most people are dead – there are only about a dozen still alive- but luckily I was able to talk to about a hundred because I began this book 30 years ago. The other problem is the lack of documentation. There is some material in private archives, and clearly there are letter and diaries that are kept, but generally the British and Americans do not release intelligence documents, so it’s very hard to get the picture of what happened. 

    Stalin's Englishman

    Listen to the rest of the interview with Andrew Lownie on the Unknown History podcast.

    You can pick up a copy of Stalin's Englishman from Amazon, Barnes & Noble, IndieBound, Apple, or Booksamillion.

     

     

     

     

  • How an Outsider Became President of the United States
    Thu, Jan 19, 2017


    He was the presidential candidate who no one expected to win. He spoke in clich?s, talked tough on immigration, and gave off-the-cuff speeches that seemed to make very little sense.

    Warren G Harding’s attempt to win the American presidential election of 1920 was deemed so unlikely to succeed that he became a subject of mockery and scorn in the nation’s newspapers.

    The New York World said that he was one the least-qualified candidates ever to run for president, labeling him a "weak and mediocre" man. The New York Times’ opinion was not much better. It called the Republican presidential candidate  "a very respectable Ohio politician of the second class."

    Yet Warren G Harding had an electrifying appeal—one that was underestimated by his political enemies. He liked to play the outsider—a newcomer to Washington who was prepared to speak the unspeakable—criticising the previous administration for its handling of World War I. He also opposed Wilson’s idea of forming the League of Nations.

    In doing so, he was to electrify America and sweep himself to victory in the 1920 election. 

    It was an extraordinary political turn-around, for no one expected Harding to gain the Republican nomination when he pitched up at the Chicago convention in 1920.

    No one, except his close friend and political manager, Harry Daugherty.

    Daugherty felt sure that none of the front-runners would carry the nomination on the first ballot—leaving Harding in with a chance. Harding had no political enemies and a clean record—he had opposed neither prohibition or suffrage. More importantly, he was one of the best-looking politicians in the nation—a sure plus in an election when millions of women would vote for the first time.

    To hear the full story, listen to the full episode of our podcast, Unknown History, in the top right hand player of this page or on iTunesStitcher, and Spotify. Plus, connect with Giles on Twitter and Facebook

    ---

    when churchill slaughtered sheep and stalin robbed a bankYou can find more content like this in When Churchill Slaughtered Sheep and Stalin Robbed a Bank. Preorder a copy of the book, due out in November 2016, on AmazonBarnes & NobleIndieboundBooks-a-Million, and Apple

  • The Real Queen Victoria: A Conversation with Author Daisy Goodwin
    Thu, Jan 12, 2017


    UH: Today, we’re excited to be here with Daisy Goodwin, author of Victoria, now available at all book retailers. Daisy is the author of the New York Times bestselling novels The American Heiress and The Fortune Hunter. She’s a Harkness scholar who attended Columbia University’s film school after earning a degree in History at Cambridge University. She was chair of the judging panel for the 2010 Orange Prize for Fiction, and is the creator and screenwriter of the masterpiece presentation "Victoria" on PBS. She lives in London. Welcome, Daisy.

    DG: Hi!

    UH: Queen Victoria has written more than sixty-two million words in her diaries, which you have extensively read and sifted through for your research. What were a few of the most interesting stories you came across in the diaries?

    DG: I came across Queen Victoria when I was a teenager myself. I was reading history at Cambridge, and one of the subjects I was studying was Queen Victoria and the media; part of the assignment was to read some of her diary. So I went to the library and got one of these enormous red leather-bound volumes of her diaries. She wrote a lot; if she’d been alive today, she would have been the queen of social media. I opened it up, and it fell open at a page in 1839, and my eyes flicked down the page, and I saw a phrase that caught me by surprise. It said, “I saw my dearest Albert today, and it was raining outside and he was wearing his uniform. He looked so splendid and he had these white cashmere breeches with nothing on underneath.” I used to think Victoria was  a stodgy old woman in black and a bonnet. But then I saw this and just went "wow, that’s not an old lady in a bonnet. That’s a living, breathing, passionate teenager."

    If Victoria has been alive today, she would have been the queen of social media.

    It was one of those moments where you go beyond the historical figure to see the person behind the words. I thought. "Here is a girl who is only 19. She’s just fallen madly in love. She’s really interested in men and sex, and she’s got a very passionate nature." It gave me insight into this girl, which later made it easy for me to write a screenplay and a novel about her.

    Her diaries reveal that she was a woman of strong emotion. She notices everything, she’s interested in everything. They're incredibly vivid, and are a fantastically good resource. I can’t think of any other monarch about whom we know so much. If you go back to the originals- or as close as you can get- you get a sense of not just the head of state, but the woman. If you want to know what it’s like to be the woman who was the head of the most powerful country in the world for 63 years, then you can go back to her diaries and get a very, very strong sense of what it was like.

    UH: There is a big controversy surrounding whether or not Queen Victoria had a relationship with her Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne. Can you speak some more to the evidence that supports this association?

    DG: So Victoria comes to the throne when she’s eighteen, and until she comes to meet Lord Melbourne, she’s only ever been alone in a room with a man once before, and that was an old Prime Minister. When Lord Melbourne turns up, he is a famous ladies' man. He’s had this very colorful past, he’s been with lots of women. His wife famously ran away with Lord Barron. He’s the picture of legend, a romantic figure.

    Victoria's father had died when she was six months old, and the only man in her life was her mother’s advisor, Sir John Conroy, whom she detested. She rightly thought he was trying to wrestle power from her. Melbourne is charming, he’s attractive, and even though he’s much older than her, he’s the first person to take her seriously. She falls for him. You can see from the moment she meets him in her diary that he’s literally all she writes about for three years.

    I think it’s unlikely that it was an affair in the carnal sense, because even though she was very passionate, I don’t think Melbourne would have ever crossed the line. There’s no doubt that he was also very attached to her—the way I see it is that Melbourne was Victoria’s first love, and Victoria was Melbourne’s last love. There was lots of evidence at the time; people who saw them together were convinced that there was a relationship.

    UH: Your new novel is focused on young Queen Victoria. What led you to focus on her early life in this book?

    DG: In my last book, The Fortune Hunter, I’d written about Victoria in her sixties. I’d started thinking about another novel, and as I was thinking about it, I thought of Victoria at the beginning of her reign. The thing that triggered it for me was a fight with my daughter, who is 16 and the same height as Victoria. She’s very small, she’s very intense, and she’s very passionate; she’s full of hormones, and she’s turbulent. We were having a huge round, and she rushed out and slammed the door, and I thought, “Well, how would it be if she woke up tomorrow and found herself the most powerful woman in the world?” And that sort of gave me the dramatic impetus, and I could see that it was a great moment to start a drama to start a novel.

    The Real Queen VictoriaOf course, the early years of her reign are fascinating. You’ve got a country that’s been ruled, for centuries, by old, fat, disreputable men, and suddenly you’ve got this beautiful young queen; she’s innocent, she’s eighteen, she’s tiny. There was an enormous kind of warmth towards her, but also a whole establishment hardening their ranks and thinking, “This is never going to work” because she was not a bloke. It’s a very exciting moment, and I felt that this was the place to start. 

    Listen to the rest of the interview with Daisy Goodwin on the Unknown History podcast.

    You can purchase a copy of Victoria on AmazonBarnes & NobleIndieBoundBooks-a-Million, or Apple. Or if you prefer to listen, check out the audiobook on Audible.

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